Turing House
Key Words and Meanings - Year 12 Biology
  • Module 2 - Cell structure
    MonosaccharideA simple sugar, the most basic carbohydrate. They have the general formula CnH2nOn. 
    CelluloseA polysaccharide which offers structural support.  
    Ester bondA chemical bond between glycerol and a fatty acid. 
    PolypeptideA molecule which consists of more than two amino acids.  
    CofactorA substance which is required by an enzyme in order to make it work. 
    Nucleic AcidDNA and RNA are nucleic acids which both carry information.  
    Semi-conservative replicationA theory describing DNA replication which results in two new strands, each with an original and a new strand. 
    Eukaryotic cellA type of cell containing membrane-bound organelles and a 'true' nucleus.  
    Prokaryotic cellA cell which lacks a membrane-bound, or true, nucleus.  
    Phospholipid bilayerMaking up the cell membrane, the phospholipid bilayer consists of two outward facing phospholipids (phosphate group with an associated fatty acid). 
  • Module 2 - Nucleotides and Nucleic acids
    TranspirationThe movement of water through a plant from the roots due to evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers. 
    TranslocationThe movement of sugars and other substances such as amino acids, around a plant. Movement is both up and down the plant. 
    EndopeptidasesA type of enzyme which breaks bonds within a protein. 
    MicellesTiny structures formed when a lipid is broken down; monoglycerides and fatty acids stick with bile salts to form micelles. 
    ElectrocardiographA machine that records the electrical activity of the heart. The trace produced is called an electrocardiogram, or ECG. 
    SyphgmomanometerA device used to measure blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic readings are obtained. 
    XylemPlant tissue which transports water and mineral ions in solution.  
    PhloemPlant tissue which transports solute like sugars, around the plant. 
  • Module 2 - Biological molecules
  • Module 3 - Transport in animals
  • Module 2 - Cell division
  • Module 2 - Biological membranes
  • Module 2 - Enzymes
  • Module 3 - Transport in plants
  • Module 3 - Exchange surfaces
  • Module 4 - Biodiversity
  • Module 4 - Communicable diseases
  • Module 4 - Classification and evolution
  • Module 1 - Development of skills in practical Biology
    HypothesisA proposed explanation based on limited evidence which is used as a starting point for further investigation. 
    Independent variableA variable or factor that does not depend on another. It is the variable that is changed in a scientific experiment. 
    Dependent VariableThe variable or factor which is affected by another variable. It is the 'measured' variable within an experiment. 
    Random errorErrors caused by unknown and unpredictable changes in a measurement, either due to measuring instruments or environmental factors. 
    Precise / precisionPrecision refers to how close measurements of the same item are to each other. Precision is independent of accuracy.  
    AccuracyHow close a measurement is to the true or accepted value. 
    Anomaly / anomolousA result which appears different to other measurements or does not fit the expected trend. 
    Critical valueValues that define regions where the test statistic unlikely to lie. 
    QuantitativePertaining to numerical data 
    Qualitative dataPertaining to non-numerical data.