Turing House
Key Words and Meanings - Year 12 History
  • How did Stalin rise to power in Russia, and how did Mao create a New Power Structure in China?
    21 DemandsThe 21 Demands were set of political, economic and territorial demands, handed to Yuan Shikai and the Chinese government by Japan in January 1915. China eventually agreed to most of the demands. 
    28 BolsheviksThe 28 Bolsheviks were a cohort of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leaders educated in Moscow during the 1920s. They retained close ties to the Comintern and the Soviet Union, hence the name. 
    Anti-Rightist MovementThe Anti-Rightist Movement was a campaign launched by Mao Zedong in 1957. It aimed to remove suspected capitalists and dissidents from the ranks of the CCP. 
    Autumn Harvest UprisingThe Autumn Harvest Uprising was a short-lived rural uprising on the border of Hunan and Jiangxi provinces in September 1927. According to Mao Zedong, he claimed to have gained experience in peasant rebellions and guerrilla warfare during this uprising. 
    Beiyang GovernmentThe Beiyang government was the government of the Republic of China that operated in Beijing during the Warlord Era (1916-28). 
    BolsheviksThe Bolsheviks were the Russian communist revolutionaries who seized control of Russia in the October 1917 revolution. Within China, the term ‘Bolshevik’ often referred to Chinese communists with close ties to Soviet Russia or the Comintern. 
    CadreA cadre was a devoted CCP member who worked to achieve revolution and/or implement communist policies. In the People’s Republic of China, cadres often worked in rural areas, overseeing the implementation of government policies or initiatives. 
    Central CommitteeThe Central Committee is the leadership committee of the Chinese Communist Party. During the revolutionary period, it contained between 100 and 300 regular and alternate members. 
    Central Plains WarThe Central Plains War was a six-month civil war, fought in 1930 between Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalists and the forces of three warlords (Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren and Yan Xishan) who had previously supported Jiang.  
    Chinese Communist Party (CCP)The Chinese Communist Party was a socialist political party, founded in 1921 chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. It had its roots in the May 4th Movement. The CCP dominated the left wing of the Guomindang until the Shanghai Massacre in 1927. 
  • Why did Russia move towards a command economy, and why did Mao establish communes?
    CollectivisationCollectivisation is a system of agricultural production, where small land holdings are merged into large farms. This allows for greater productivity since land, labour and resources can be more effectively managed, usually by the state. 
    Comintern‘Comintern’ is an abbreviation for the Communist International, an agency formed in 1919 to organise, promote and advance the international revolution. The Comintern was based in Moscow and effectively controlled by the Soviet Union. 
    Commissar A commissar is a political agent of a communist party. Commissars in China were posted to military units or workplaces to monitor conduct, attitudes and productivity, reporting their findings to the CCP. 
    Communism Communism is a political ideology that works toward the overthrow of capitalism and seeks to replace it with a socialist dictatorship. 
    Concubine A concubine is a sexual partner or servant outside marriage. The Qing imperial court housed large numbers of concubines, who were tasked with servicing the emperor’s sexual needs and bearing his children, but without the privileges of marriage. 
    Hundred Flowers CampaignThe Hundred Flowers Campaign was a brief period in 1956-57 where Mao Zedong invited and encouraged free expressions of speech, particularly opinion and constructive criticism of the Communist Party and the government.  
    Little Red BookThe ‘Little Red Book’ was colloquial name for Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, a small red-covered book published between 1964 and 1976.  
    Long MarchThe Long March was the retreat of Red Army and Chinese Communist Party cadres, from southern soviets to the northern province of Shaanxi in 1934-35. This operation saw thousands of people march vast distances across often treacherous terrain. 
    Manchuria A region of north-eastern China, the ethnic homeland of the Manchu. Manchuria was subject to influence by neighbouring Russia during the 19th century, then by the Japanese between the 1910s and 1945. 
    Second United FrontThe Second United Front was a brief alliance between the Guomindang and Chinese Communist Party. It formed in early 1937 after the Xian incident and lasted until early 1946. 
  • How did Russia use the secret police to enforce cultural changes, and why did Mao launch the Cultural Revolution?
    Centralisation Centralisation is a process where political power and/or decision-making is gradually limited to fewer people. In general terms, it is the opposite of democratisation. 
    CominternThe Communist International, an organisation established in Moscow in 1919 to advance the cause of international revolution. 
    Counter-RevolutionA period or set of actions where individuals or groups attempt to reverse or halt changes that have been introduced by a revolution. 
    IspolkomThe executive committee which led the Petrograd Soviet during the revolution. 
    Left-wingAn ideological position concerned with minimising or eliminating class differences and achieving economic equality, such as socialism, communism or Marxism. 
    KadetsAn abbreviated name for the Constitutional Democratic Party, a revolutionary party founded in 1905 and led by Pavel Milyukov. Membership of the Kadets was dominated middle-class professionals and some zemstvo delegates. 
    KulakA peasant who is wealthier than other peasants. A kulak is usually distinguished by his ownership of large tracts of land; his ability to produce and sell surplus produce for profit; or his employment of other peasants as labourers. 
    Class consciousnessThe awareness of a class or group that they are being exploited; an important requisite for revolution. 
    Capitalist Capitalist describes either an element of capitalism, an individual who supports capitalism or (in Marxism) an individual who owns capital and uses it to generate profit. 
    BourgeoisBourgeois is a French term used to describe the propertied, capital-owning middle classes. In Marxism, the bourgeoisie control the means of production. 
  • Did the Russian Revolution transform society as Lenin believed it would, and did Mao succeed in changing Chinese society and culture?
    MarxismA theory of history and political ideology developed in the 1800s by Karl Marx. 
    Narodniks The Narodniks were mid-19th century liberal reformers, mainly from the middle classes and universities. They ventured into rural areas to offer education and political enlightenment to peasants and incite revolution – but found little interest in either. 
    OkhranaThe Okhrana was a tsarist police force, created in 1881 by a restructuring of the Third Section. The Okhrana was primarily concerned with state security and the personal safety of the tsar. 
    PolitburoThe executive committee of the Bolshevik and later Communist Party. The first Politburo, formed in October 1917, had seven members but this number was expanded after the Bolshevik revolution. 
    PravdaA Russian socialist newspaper formed in 1903. It came under Bolshevik control in 1912 and was later the official publication of the Communist Party. 
    ProletariatA term used to describe all working classes, particularly those in capitalist systems. In Marxist contexts, the proletariat usually refers to industrial or factory workers. 
    Red ArmyThe official Soviet military force, formed in 1918 from the Red Guards, elements of the tsarist Imperial Army and conscripts. The Red Army defended the Soviet state from the Whites during the Civil War. 
    Red GuardsMilitia units formed by the Bolsheviks in April 1917, ostensibly to guard against counter-revolutionary aggression. Most Red Guards were factory workers; a smaller number were current or former soldiers or sailors. 
    RussificationA policy employed throughout the Russian Empire by Alexander III, commencing in the early 1880s. Russification imposed the Russian language, religion and culture on non-Russian regions of the empire, such as Poland, Finland and Asiatic Russia. 
    SerfA peasant who is bound to the land, and so in legal terms is owned by the landowner. Russian peasants were serfs until 1861, when they were emancipated by Alexander II. 
  • How can I effectively revise for my End of Year Examinations?
    MonarchyA monarchy is a political system where at least some executive power is vested in a hereditary monarch, who is also the head of state. 
    MorganaticA morganatic marriage is a marriage between a royal and a commoner, where the commoner and/or their children are not entitled to royal power or titles. The marriage between Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie was morganatic. 
    MutinyA mutiny is an uprising or rebellion in a military unit, such as the army or navy. 
    NationalismNationalism is an intense and often short-sighted form of patriotism. It involves a belief in the moral authority and superiority of one’s own country. 
    PatriotismPatriotism is affection for or loyalty to one’s country. 
    PopulistTo be populist is to seek or enjoy popular support; to appeal to the people. 
    RevolutionA revolution is a historical period involving dramatic political, social and/or economic change in a particular nation or region. 
    SlavsThe Slavs are a large ethnic group concentrated in central and southern Europe. They are the largest populations in western Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Balkan states. 
    TreasonTreason is a criminal act involving disloyalty or betrayal of a nation, government or leader. High treason is an act of treason during wartime and the punishment for this is usually execution. 
    Boer WarThe South African War was fought between Britain and the self-governing Afrikaner (Boer) colonies of the South African Republic (the Transvaal) and the Orange Free State. 
  • Completion of a coursework enquiry, and how did Britain lose and gain an empire between 1763–1914?
    AutocracyAutocracy is a system of government where all political power and sovereignty is vested in a single ruler, usually a king, tsar or emperor. 
    BalkansThe Balkans is a large region of south-eastern Europe, bordered by Austria-Hungary to the north, the Black Sea to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the west. Nations in the Balkans include Serbia, Bosnia, Greece and Mont 
    BayonetA bayonet is a long blade that is attached to the barrel of a gun, for use in infantry charges and close-quarter fighting. The bayonet was considered an important weapon during the 18th and 19th centuries, however, it was largely rendered ineffective by a 
    Colonial WarMore common in the 19th century, colonial wars were one-sided conflicts against undeveloped or inferior forces, waged to gain control of a colonial possession. 
    Defence of the Realm ActThe Defence of the Realm Act was legislation passed by the British parliament in August 1914. It gave the government sweeping powers to protect the nation and coordinate the war effort. 
    DiplomacyDiplomacy refers to formal and informal communications between nations and their governments. The aims of diplomacy are to forge good relations, advance trade interests and resolve disputes and disagreements.  
    DynastyA dynasty is a ruling family in a monarchy, such as the Romanovs in Russia and the Hapsburgs in Austria-Hungary. 
    EmperorAn emperor is a monarch who rules or governs an empire. 
    EmpireAn empire is two or more nations, colonies and ethnicities who are under the political and economic control of a single, powerful nation. 
    Militarism Militarism is a condition where the military occupies a privileged and influential position in society and government. Military needs are prioritised and military commanders exert excessive influence on government decision making.