Turing House
Key Words and Meanings - Year 10 History
  • Why did the Cold War end?
    Soviet BlocThe Soviet bloc or Eastern bloc refers to communist nations in Europe during the Cold War. 
    SuperpowerA superpower is a nation that dominates its region, due to its size and political, military and economic strength. The United States and the Soviet Union were both superpowers during the Cold War. 
    Warsaw PactThe Warsaw Pact was an alliance of European communist nations, formed in 1955. 
    SDIThe Strategic Defence Initiative was a missile defence program, initiated by the Reagan administration in 1983. Features of SDI included early warning systems, missile interception systems and research into the use of armed satellites. 
    Berlin AirliftThe Berlin airlift was a 1948-49 operation to circumvent the Berlin blockade (see below) by supplying West Berlin by air. The airlift was continued for 11 months. During this time it delivered vast amounts of food, fuel and supplies to the city. 
    MujahideenThe mujahideen were Islamic resistance fighters who fought against the Soviet occupation in Afghanistan, with American funding and support. Some members of the mujahideen were later associated with the Taliban and Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda. 
    Mutually assured destruction‘Mutually assured destruction’ was a Cold War principle which suggested that a premeditated nuclear attack was unlikely, since both sides knew that the other would retaliate. 
    Prague SpringThe Prague Spring refers to a liberal reform movement in socialist Czechoslovakia in 1968. The Prague Spring reforms were ultimately suppressed by Moscow. 
    Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan was a name given to the European Recovery Plan (ERP). This US-financed relief package provided funds to European nations to assist their reconstruction after World War II. 
    Reagan DoctrineThe Reagan Doctrine refers to the foreign policy implemented by US president Ronald Reagan, which aimed to “rollback” communism. The granting of support and aid to “freedom fighters” (anti-communist groups and movements) was at the core. 
  • How did crime, law enforcement and punishment change 1000-1700 and how did Elizabeth I establish herself when she became Queen?
    Corporal PunishmentPunishment of an offender by causing them physical pain – now illegal in the UK.  
    Death PenaltyCapital punishment; a form of punishment in which a prisoner is put to death for crimes committed.  
    PunishmentSomething legally done to somebody as a result of being found guilty of breaking the law.  
    Community ServiceA way of punishing offenders by making them do unpaid work in the community.  
    CrimeAn offence which is punishable by law, for example stealing, murder.  
    Sanctity of LifeAll life is holy as it is created and loved by God; Christians believe human life should not be misused or abused.  
    Free WillThe ability of people to make decisions for themselves without constraint 
    Hate CrimesCrimes, often including violence, that are usually targeted at a person because of their race, religion, sexuality, disability or gender.  
    PenanceA punishment inflicted on yourself to show that you are sorry for their sins. 
    ScourgeA person or thing that causes great suffering. 
  • How did crime, law enforcement and punishment change from 1700-1900 and what challenges did Elizabeth face from home and abroad when becoming Queen?
    The EnglightenmentA movement in Europe during the 18th century that promoted the idea that people could think for themselves and that traditional authorities, like the nobility and the Church, should not be able to control everyday life. 
    GallowersWere corrupt and not all criminals were treated the same. 
    Young CriminalsTurned into hardened criminals by being taking example from the adults in the prison. 
    ColonistsIn Australia began to complain against colonies being used as a dumping ground for England's unwanted criminals. 
    Trial by BattleNorman custom, Accused and Accuser fought with identical weapons until one loss the fight. The loser was hanged. 
    John HowardInspected the country's gaols. He recommended more space, better food, and PAID gaolers. 
    PrisonsNormal way of punishing criminals. Conditions were damp and overcrowed and diseases spread. 
    William the ConquerorHad to convince the Saxon people that he was the rightful king after he won the crown in the Battle of Hastings. 
    Early ReleaseGood behavior meant convicts could be released from their sentences early (Ticket of leave). 
    Elizabeth FryFocused on conditions Women and Children were kept in. A number of her ideas were taken up by later reformers. 
  • How did crime, law enforcement, and punishment change from 1900 to the present day and why did Elizabeth I execute her cousin?
    Feudalisma social system existing in medieval Europe in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and land in return. 
    DemesneA piece of land attached to a manor and retained by the owner for their own use. 
    Fyrdthe English militia before 1066. 
    HierachyA system in which members of an organization or society are ranked according to relative status or authority. 
    HomageSpecial honour or respect shown publicly. 
    Housecarl(Before the Norman Conquest) a member of the bodyguard of a Danish or English king or noble. 
    Itinerant kingshipFrom the Frankish period and up to late medieval times, the usual form of royal or imperial government. 
    Motte and BaileyA castle consisting of a fort on a motte surrounded by a bailey. 
    PapacyThe office or authority of the Pope. 
    SheriffThe chief executive officer of the Crown in a county, having various administrative and judicial functions. 
  • How did Jack the Ripper escape the rule of law and what was Elizabethan society like 1558-88?
    ThegnAn English thane. 
    Welsh MarchesAn imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.  
    WitanThe council of an Anglo-Saxon king. 
    WritAn order or mandatory process in writing issued in the name of the sovereign or of a court or judicial officer commanding the person to whom it is directed to perform or refrain from performing a specified act. 
    Edward the ConfessorOne of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066.  
    William of NormandyThe first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. 
    UprisingAn act of resistance or rebellion; a revolt. 
    Harrying of the NorthSeries of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–70 to subjugate northern England. The presence of the last Wessex claimant, Edgar Atheling, had encouraged Anglo-Danish rebellions. 
    Harald HardradaKing of Norway, was one of the claimants to the English throne following the death of Edward the Confessor in January 1066. 
    Harold GodwinsonOften called Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. His death marked the end of Anglo-Saxon rule over England. 
  • How can we effectively revise our Year 10 learning?
    NotorietyThe state of being famous or well known for some bad quality or deed. 
    SalientAn area of a battlefield that extends into enemy territory, so that it is surrounded on three sides by the enemy and is therefore a vulnerable position. 
    MurderThe unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another. 
    ImmigrantA person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country. 
    WhitechapelA district in the East End of London. It once had a reputation as one of the poorest areas of central London, and many immigrants settled there, including many Jewish people in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 
    NeurosurgerySurgery carried out on the nervous system, especially the brain and the spine. 
    Local anaestheticKeeping a patient awake during an operation, with the area being operated on numbed to prevent pain. 
    General anaestheticPutting a patient to sleep during an operation. 
    Shell-shockPsychological disturbance caused by prolonged exposure to active warfare, especially being under bombardment. 
    Jack the RipperBest-known name for an unidentified serial killer generally believed to have been active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888.