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Key Words and Meanings - Year 10 Food & Nutrition
  • Nutrients and Food Science
    Amino acidsthe ‘building blocks’ that join together to make protein molecules.  
    Essential amino acidsamino acids that the body cannot make by itself and must get ready made from food. 
    Biological valuethe number of essential amino acids that a protein food contains.  
    Protein complementationeating different LBV foods together in order to get all the essential amino acids that the body needs.  
    Fatmicronutrient that supplies the body with energy.  
    Oilsfats that are liquid at room temperature.  
    Fatty acidsparts of a fat molecule.  
    Triglyceridefat molecule.  
    Monounsaturated fatty acidfatty acid found in solid fats and liquid oils.  
    Saturated fatty acids fatty acids found mainly in solid fats.  
    Unsaturated fatty acidsfatty acids found mainly in liquid oils.  
    Visible fats fats in a food that you can see (e.g. fat on meat)  
    Invisible fatsfats in a food that you cannot see (e.g. butter in a pastry).  
    Photosynthesisthe process where green plants trap energy from the sun and form carbohydrates.  
    Sugarsgroup of carbohydrates that taste sweet.  
    Monosaccharidesgroup of sugars that are made of one sugar molecule.  
    Disaccharidesgroup of sugars that are made of two sugar molecules.  
    Polysaccharides (complex carb)group of carbohydrates that are made from many sugar molecules joined together, but do not taste sweet.  
    Fat solublevitamins that are found in foods containing fats.  
    Water solublevitamins that are found in foods with a high water content.  
    Anti-oxidantvitamins that help protect the body from developing heart disease and some types of cancer.  
    Hydratedthe body has enough water.  
    Dehydratedthe body does not have enough water.  
  • Nutritional needs and health, functional and chemical properties of food
    Sensory qualitiesthe characteristics of a food that give it a particular appearance. Flavour texture, ‘mouthfeel’ (what it feels like, not what it tastes like, when you put it in your mouth) aroma (smell) and sound (some foods are crunchy, crispy or cra 
    PalatabilityWhat makes a food acceptable and good to eat  
    Chemical bondsBonds that hold large protein molecules together in compact, folded bundles  
    DenaturationThe chemical bonds have broken and the protein molecule has unfolded and changed shape  
    CoagulationThe joining together of lots of denatured protein molecules, which changes the appearance and texture of the food  
    GelatinisationThe swelling of starch granules when they are cooked with a liquid to the point where they burst and release starch molecules  
    DextrinisationThe breaking up of starch molecules into smaller groups of glucose molecules when they are exposed to dry heat  
    Caramelisation:The breaking up of sucrose (sugar) molecules when they are heated, which changes the colour, flavour and texture of the sugar as it turns into caramel  
    PlasticityThe ability of fat to soften over a range of temperatures and be shaped and spread with light pressure  
    ShorteningThe ability of fats to shorten the length of the gluten molecules in the pastry  
    AerationThe ability of some fats to trap lots of air bubbles when beaten together with sugar  
    EmulsificationEither keeping drops of oil or fat suspended in a liquid and preventing them from separating out; or keeping drops of water suspended in an oil or fat and preventing them from separating out  
    Raising agentAn ingredient or process that introduces a gas into a mixture so that it rises when cooked  
    Healthy, balanced dietA diet that contains the correct proportions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water necessary for good health, to grow properly, be active and maintain a healthy body.  
    DietThe food that you eat every day. There are also special diets (e.g a low-fat diet, a calorie-controlled diet, a vegetarian diet).  
    Lacto-vegetarianSomeone who does not eat meat or fish but will eat milk and milk products.  
    Life stagesPhases of development that people go through during their life, such as infancy (babyhood), childhood, adolescence (teenagers), adulthood and the elderly.  
    Kilocalorie/kilojoule Units used to measure energy.  
    Energy denseA food that contains lots of fats and/or carbohydrate and has a high energy value.  
    BMRBasal Metabolic Rate is the amount of energy we need to keep our body alive.  
    PALthis means Physical Activity Level, and is the amount of energy we use for movement and physical activity every day.  
    Energy BalanceThe amount of energy we get from food each day is the same as the amount of energy we use each day.  
    ModifyChange something in a recipe e.g. an ingredient or cooking method to make it more suitable for current guidelines for a healthy diet.  
    Nutrient profileThe different nutrients that a specific food contains.  
    Risk FactorAn action or a natural tendency that makes you more likely to develop a disease or health condition.  
    MalnutritionHaving a diet that is not balanced.  
    Diet-related diseaseA disease or health condition where one or more of the risk factors for developing it are what or how much of particular foods or beverages you eat or drink over a period of time.  
  • Food spoilage and contamination, food safety and food choice. British and international cuisine
    Micro-organismsTiny forms of life, both plants and animals, only visible under a microscope  
    Food spoilageMaking food unfit and unsafe to eat  
    ContaminateMake a food unsafe to eat by allowing it to come into contact with micro-organisms that will grow and multiply in it  
    PathogenicSomething that is capable of causing illness  
    Food poisoningAn illness caused by micro-organisms contaminating food 
    High-risk foodFoods that contain a lot of moisture and nutrients, especially protein (e.g. milk, cream, eggs, meat, fish), and easily support the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms, particularly bacteria. Also called perishable foods  
    EnzymeThe name given to natural substances in living things that speed up chemical reactions  
    Ripening The process of a fruit or vegetable maturing so that it is ready to eat  
    Enzymic browningThe discoloration of a fruit or vegetable due to the reaction of enzymes with plant cell substances and oxygen from the air  
    OxidationWhen substances combine with (pick up) oxygen  
    GerminateThis is the process that happens when a spore from a mould starts to grow on a food  
    Non-pathogenicA micro-organism that is not harmful to humans and does not cause food poisoning  
    PasteurisationThis means heating fresh milk to 72 degrees C for 15 seconds in order to kill pathogenic micro-organisms that may be in it.  
    HomogenisedForcing milk under high pressure through a fine sieve, in order to break up the fat into tiny droplets. This means that the droplets stay suspended in the milk and do not separate out into a layer of cream.  
    Danger zoneThe range of temperatures (5 degrees C to 63 degrees C) that are just right for bacteria to multiply rapidly.  
    SporeA special protective coating that some types of bacteria grow in the conditions are not the right for them to multiply.  
    ContaminationMaking a food unsafe to eat by allowing it to come into contact with micro-organisms that will grow and multiply in it.  
    CuisineA style or method of cooking, especially as characteristic of a particular country, region, or establishment. 
  • Food provenance, processing and production. The environmental impact of food production and sustainability.
    Food provenanceWhere foods and ingredients originally come from.  
    PesticidesChemicals sprayed onto plant crops to prevent insect and mould attack and weed growth, and produce strong plants.  
    Grown ingredientsPlants grown for food (herbs, fruits, vegetables, cereals).  
    Reared ingredientsAnimals, birds and fish specially bred in captivity and brought up to be reared to eat.  
    Gathered ingredientsPlant foods gathered from the wild for eating (e.g. herb, edible fungi, berries, seaweed).  
    Caught ingredientsAnimals, birds, fish and shellfish hunted and caught from the wild for eating.  
    Intensive farmingGrowing or rearing large numbers of the same type of plant or animals in one place.  
    Organic farmingProducing food using manure, compost and natural methods of weed, pest and disease control rather than chemicals.  
    Genetic modification (GM)A scientific technique that enables a particular characteristic from one plant of animal to be inserted into the genes of another.  
    Climate changeChanges in the earth’s temperature that can lead to unusual and extreme weather conditions.  
    Greenhouse gasesForm an insulating layer around the earth’s atmosphere, which traps heat and raises the earth’s temperature.  
    Non-renewable energyEnergy produced from fossil fuels that cannot be renewed once they are used up.  
    Fossil fuelsFuels such as coal, oil and gas that were created over millions of years by fossilised plants and animals.  
    Carbon footprintA measure of the contribution of something (e.g. food production) to the emission of greenhouse gases.  
    Food securityThe ability of people to buy sufficient safe, nutritious and affordable food.  
    SustainabiltyProducing food in a way that can be maintained over a long period of time and protects the environment.  
    FairtradeA foundation set up to ensure that food producers in developing countries get paid fair prices for their crops and have decent working and living conditions.  
  • Factors affecting food choice and sensory evaluation
    LifestyleThe way in which people live, their attitudes, activities, likes and dislikes, beliefs, etc 
    SeasonalityThe time of the year when a particular food crop is ready to harvest and is at its best for flavour, colour and texture. It is also usually cheaper and fresher because there is a lot of it available to buy. 
    Food milesThe distance traveled by all the ingredients in a food product until it reaches our plate.  
    Food intoleranceA long-term condition where after several hours or days, certain foods cause a person to feel unwell and have a range of symptoms, but it is usually not life threatening and does not involve the immune system. 
    Food allergyThis happens to come people when their immune system has a very sensitive reaction to specific foods, which causes severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms that happen very quickly after the food is eaten.  
    Target groupA specific group of similar people, e.g. all the same age, with similar jobs, such as students. 
    Nutritional profileThe types and amounts of different nutrients a food contains. 
    MarketingAdvertising and promoting a food product to encourage people to buy it. 
    AppetisingFood prepared, cooked and served so well that you want to eat it.  
    SensesThe ability of the body to react to things through sight, taste, hearing, smell (aroma) and touch. 
    Taste budsSpecial cells on the tongue that pick up flavours. 
    Olfactory (smell) receptorsSpecial cells in the nose that pick up aromas (smells). 
    Sensory analysisA way of measuring the sensory qualities of food. 
    Sensory descriptorsWords used to describe the characteristics of a food. 
  • Theory top up and practicals

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